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stressors  could  lead  to  physical  and  emotio-  bally and historically. However, in the last ap-
             nal exhaustion and bodies could pay the price.    proximate 70 years, we catalog these events as
             Selye borrowed the term stress from enginee-      being stressful. Indeed, a modern view of the
             ring, a field where stress was defined as effects   construct of stress has added to an understan-
             of pressure or force on metal or other objects    ding of the complex relationship between the
             and the total amount of resistance that could be   body and the soul, our physiology and our psy-
             withstood. Since the time that Selye developed    chology. Selye’s (1976) significant contribution
             his  theory,  a  more  complex  understanding  of   was to show the relationship between cellular
             how stress impacts health and bodily systems      events and behavioral and interpersonal events.
             has  emerged.  Maté  (2003)  has  summarized      We now commonly accept that there are inter-
             more  recent  findings  of  this  connection  in  a   actions between psychological experiences and
             book for the general public entitled, When the    physical symptoms.
             Boy Says No.                                      The  growth  of  the  field  of  health  psychology,
             The term stress eventually became a household     specifically psychoneuroimmunology provides
             term, but it has not always been that way. Hut-   a growing body of research that shows that phy-
             macher (2019) stated that the term stress only    sical, bodily, and psychological events are not
             came into use during the last half of the 20th    isolated  and  indeed  work  together  to  impact
             century. Kugelmann (1992) has also addressed      mental and physical health. Kiecolt-Glasser, et
             the  history  of  the  construct  and  emphasized   al., (1998) provide a vivid example. Using small
             the recent normalization of the word as applied   puncture  wounds  purposely  inflicted  into  the
             to  human  experience.  For  example,  a  student   skin,  these  researchers  showed  that  research
             recently came into my office and talked about     participants heal 40% slower if the wound oc-
             how  stressed  she  was  because  of  a  friendship   curred  prior  to  a  major  exam  compared  to  a
             concern. During exam weeks, students commi-       wound  that  occurred  during  summer  vacati-
             serate about the stress they feel. A client started   on  when  there  is  less  stress.  In  other  studies,
             our session recently by discussing the complexi-  it was shown that married couples in conflict
             ty of her life and the stress she experienced from   heal  from  the  same  type  of  puncture  wound
             in-laws. Another client talked about the stress   at  slower  rates  (Kiecolt-Glasser,  et  al.,  2005).
             of his job. Still another client was forlorn by the   Other research shows the relationship between
             stress of health issues. Prior to the mid 1900’s,   psychological  trauma  and  inflammation  on  a
             this phrase would not have been used. Though      cellular level, a condition associated with heart
             the  terminology  is  relatively  new,  the  experi-  disease  and  other  health  issues  (O’Donovan,
             ence is not. Before the common expression of      Neylan, Metzler, & Cohen, 2012).
             the word stress, people experienced events that   This article is not intended to provide a com-
             brought them worry, depression, grief, sorrow,    prehensive review of the research that shows a
             and other emotions. Today we often associate      mind-body connection. Previously cited studies
             these experiences with stress. In the more gene-  are only examples of the types of research being
             ral use of the term, modern persons often use     done in the area of mind and body. A simple
             the term stress to communicate that life is get-  review of the literature will provide a plethora
             ting out of balance (Hutmacher, 2019).            of evidence to show this connection. For the lay
             The cocept of stress has become reified. Contem-  reader, Maté (2003) provides a host of clinical
             porary psychological research has solidified the   examples  to  show  how  psychological  factors
             concept of stress in our daily lives. Meyers and   and stress can impact physical health. Rather,
             DeWall (2019) in their introductory psychology    the focus of this article is to consider stress as
             text divide stressors into three major categories:   modern construct that can be understood phy-
             “catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily   sically, psychologically, and spiritually.
             hassles” (p. 385). These are the common experi-
             ences of humanity throughout the ages. A simp-    Stress and Modern Life
             le review of human history shows that humans      Throughout time, challenging events and times
             have faced these types of experiences both glo-   have tested the fortitude of persons. Today we

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