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3:5), which is offered to everyone upon conditi-  At the same time, the psychologies based on
             on of believing in Christ (p. ??). When modern    Christianity and those based on naturalism
             psychology was in its infancy, Abraham Kuy-       will share many beliefs, given common empiri-
             per (1898) applied the Two-Cities Framework       cal and intellectual powers and a common hu-
             to the human sciences and concluded that each     man nature and fallenness, particularly in areas
             City will develop its own version of them, re-    of psychology that study more mechanistic
             flecting its respective ultimate values.          aspects of human nature, like neuropsychology,
             A Christian approach to the human sciences        perception, memory, and human reasoning, as
             will differ from a modern approach because of     well as more mechanistic social processes, like
             the following values:                             socialization, the impact of trauma, and group
             1.  The triune God is the author, center, and     processes.
                end of human life and his glory is the high-   Areas of greatest contention currently between
                est human motivation (Is 43:7; 1Co 10:31);     these two versions of the human sciences in-
             2.  Humans are made in God’s image (Gen           clude the role that the triune God has played
                1:26-27; 9:6), so they can only be under-      in the formation of the human species, and his
                stood properly in terms of their relation to   role with respect to the individual person in
                God, and they flourish best in communion       maturation and psychospiritual healing; what
                with him;                                      psychopathology is from a theistic standpoint
             3.  However, humans are now sinful and alie-      and how human responsibility and sin are in-
                nated from their Creator (Gen 3; Ro 3:10-      volved, the use (and overuse) of medication to
                18). In addition, they are damaged creatu-     treat mental disorders; questions about whether
                res, both in body and soul, which can lead     certain conditions ought to be considered a dis-
                to the emergence of psychological disorders;   order (e.g., homosexuality and gender identity
             4.  Humans now require union with Christ in       confusion); and the prohibition against theists
                order to attain the greatest kind of psycho-   sharing their worldview assumptions in therapy
                spiritual healing available, and complete he-  sessions, given that naturalists are free to share
                aling in the age to come. Through their uni-   theirs all the time.
                on with Christ, believers obtain many psy-
                chospiritual blessings from God that have      Christian Psychology on the Spectrum
                the potential to gradually but significantly   There are basically three approaches Christians
                improve human functioning and relation-        currently take towards contemporary psycholo-
                ships, over the course of the believer’s life.   gy. Probably the most common approach is a
                The most important blessing is the gift of     relatively uncritical acceptance of them as they
                the indwelling Holy Spirit.                    are currently constituted. Christians taking this
             These  (and  other)  truths  would  presumably    stance conduct themselves in these fields ac-
             have a profound impact on the development of      cording to the rules of discourse and practice
             a Christian version of psychology (especially in   of naturalism and secularism, but they seek to
             the areas of psychopathology and psychothera-     do so with Christian integrity and fidelity to
             py). Some examples of distinctly Christian em-    Christian ethics. To this group, the idea of a
             pirical research include a study of positive men-  distinctly Christian psychology is as nonsensi-
             tal health outcomes associated with believing in   cal as Christian chemistry or Christian plum-
             the Christian doctrine of sin (Watson, Morris,    bing. Psychology is a science, and as such it is
             Loy, Hamrick, & Grizzle, 2007), Christian post-   based on empirical and quantitative methods
             formal thought (Johnson, 1998), the Christian     that yield universal knowledge accessible to
             concept of communion (Bassett & Aubé, 2013),      those  trained in  the  methods,  irrespective  of
             and the Christian concept of grace (Sisemore,     their worldview. Consequently, good science is
             Arbuckle, Killian, Mortel¬laro, Swanson, Fis-     unaffected by worldview. On the other side of
             her, & McGinnis, 2008), and a Christian model     the spectrum are those Christians who largely
             of wisdom (Kwon, 2009), just to name a few ex-    reject psychology, because of its secular, natura-
             amples.                                           listic worldview, and instead practice a model of

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