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and therefore the contrary worldview beliefs of   sciences are? The challenge facing all scientists
             others to be false (even relativists cannot think   is that all scientific activity is conducted within
             otherwise). The great success of natural science   and guided by a “worldview,” a set of founda-
             methods and the belief that they lead necessa-    tional assumptions regarding reality (Naugle,
             rily to the greatest possible objectivity that hu-  2002). Many terms have been used for this im-
             mans can attain have convinced most adherents     portant meta-concept.  2
             of naturalism that their worldview assumptions    The challenge here for the development of a
             are beyond question.                              human science for all of humanity is that one’s
             In addition to the worldview of naturalism, mo-   basic assumptions cannot be proven to be true,
             dern psychology also accepted some version of     either logically or empirically, to the satisfac-
             positivism as its epistemology, which restricted   tion of others who do not already subscribe to
             science to what it could be “positively” or ob-   them, they are rarely carefully explicated, and
             jectively identified: empirical descriptions, logi-  they guide one’s thinking and living implici-
             cal and mathematical relations, and theoretical   tly. As a result, most adherents take for gran-
             statements about human beings,  all of which      ted their own worldview beliefs, which seem
             were “publicly verifiable,” that is, procedures to   to them self-evidently true, and they have a
             which all interested parties could supposedly     difficult time understanding how adherents of
             subscribe. Together these minimalist epistemo-    other worldviews cannot affirm the same as-
             logical assumptions have undergirded psycho-      sumptions.  This lack of understanding is espe-
             logical discourse in the West for the past 150    cially marked for those who are in the majority,
             years. 1                                          a position the adherents of naturalism currently
             As evidence of the foregoing, since 1950 the      enjoy, at least among the West’s intellectual elite.
             West’s major universities, psychological orga-    According  to  Augustine’s  Two-Cities  Frame-
             nizations, and psychology publishing organs       work (sometimes called the doctrine of the
             have universally accepted rules of discourse and   “Antithesis”), such worldview differences are
             practice for the human sciences—pure and ap-      to be expected. Near the collapse of the Roman
             plied—that are consistent with naturalism and     Empire, Augustine defended the validity of
             some degree of positivism. As a result, strong    Christianity in the face of criticisms that it was
             ontological claims about the nature of human      responsible for Rome’s destruction by arguing
             beings (like they have conditioned freedom),      that the human race is composed fundamental-
             the influence of supernatural beings or proces-   ly of two communities: the City of Humanity,
             ses on human beings, and the affirmation of ab-   into which all humans are born, and the City
             solute ethical values are generally not allowed   of God, into which one has to be born again by
             in the psychological discourse found in the best   faith in Christ (Jn 3:3). The City of Humanity,
             journals and books that represent what we to-     Augustine wrote (1958), is composed of those
             day call psychology. This version of psychology   who fundamentally love self and despise God,
             is commonly called “modern.”                      whereas the City of God is composed of those
             By any reckoning, the contributions of modern     who fundamentally love God and despise self,
             psychology have been enormous, leading to the     having been regenerated by God’s grace (Tit
             development of extremely rich, scientific bodies
             of literature that well describe human beings as
             purely natural entities and that promote their    2 For example, Foucault (1972) refers to an “episteme,”
             psychological improvement using purely natu-      Watson (1993) an “ideological surround,” and J.K. A.
             ral means. But how can human beings know ab-      Smith (2009) a liturgy.
             solutely what the valid parameters of the human   3 It is a curious fact of human life that a necessary circu-
                                                               larity attends some of our most cherished and important
                                                               beliefs, including beliefs in the general validity of one’s
                                                               perceptions, clear and simple memories, and reasoning,
             1 Consider, for example, the implications of first subhea-  the testimony of others, the existence of other persons,
             ding  of  chapter  seven  of  William  James’  (1890)  classic   indeed the existence of whatever one is presently expe-
             exposition of the “new psychology”: “Psychology is a Na-  riencing (Audi, 1998; Plantinga, 1993), a problem nicely
             tural Science” (Vol I, p. 183).                   illustrated in the movie The Matrix.
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