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perfection  (e.g.  Col.  3,8-10;  Gal.  4,19;  2  Tim.   man is seen as God’s creation, God can also be
             3,16f., see also Eph.4,12-14)                     perceived  as  giving  a  commission.  “Threefold
             Ability  to  relate  to  man  and  God,  faith  (e.g.   commission” thus means:
             Luke 17,15-19)                                    1. A commission to supply help to the person
                                                               affected  and  his/her  social  environment,  with
             Depending on the person and the initial situa-    the aim of more successful living in the sense of
             tion, the aims are differentiated (e.g. Jude 22f).  self-determination in everyday life. For this, the
             Not only God, but also those seeking help, can    professional  must  be  prepared,  under  certain
             and should set aims (e.g. Mk. 10,51, see also Mt.   circumstances, to adopt uncomfortable attitu-
             20,32)                                            des towards the social systems involved.

             A first conclusion:                               2. A commission from the social system (e.g. so-
             Secular therapies and biblical models of healing   ciety) with the aim of (re-)integration, maintai-
             are both distinguished by a variety of very dif-  ning contacts with society, or the avoidance of
             ferently  defined  aims.  In  addition,  definitions   further resulting costs. With this commission,
             of therapy aims are strongly dependent on the     forceful means (sanctions and methods of con-
             therapist’s own ideas of the mode of action and   trol) are often associated. Here, under certain
             methods of the therapy.                           circumstances, considerable tensions can arise
                                                               with the needs, wishes or values of the person
             Source of aims: the three-fold commission         affected.
             (Psycho-)therapy  is  not  always  a  voluntary
             commission for individual help given by a client   3. A commission which arises from one’s own
             to a therapist. In many cases, the interests of the   calling  or  professional  motivation,  motivated
             cost-carrying agency, a therapeutic institution,   by ethical values and norms (the double com-
             an employer or other factors are involved. This   mandment of love, human rights, professional
             second commission, as a rule, aims at (re-)inte-  codex)  and  informed  by  professional  know-
             gration, at a certain level of control over “non-  ledge. This third commission enables a certain
             integrated persons”, and the avoidance of resul-  independence from the “external” commissions
             ting costs for society. In social work, in work   of the first two commissions, but, for precisely
             this problem is even more pronounced, Bönisch     this reason, can also lead to conflict.
             and Lösch  had already coined the phrase of the
             “double  commission”  in  1973.  More  recently,   What is needed is to be conscious of tensions
             Staub-Bernasconi   suggested  speaking  of  a     resulting from the different commissions and to
             threefold commission, denoting the commissi-      define as clearly as possible, for oneself and the
             on to supply help to the individual, a commissi-  client, in which commission one is acting. 4
             on from society, and a professional commission
             in  the  sense  of  scientifically-based  knowledge   1.  What  commission  is  my  client  giving  me?
             of treatment and transformation and of ethical    With what does he need help?
             I share this view, but would add, by way of ex-   2. What is my commission (what I should do,
             planation of the third mandate, that, wherever    not what it would be “nice to have”) as a thera-
                                                               pist or under our commission as an institution

             2  Böhnisch,  L.,  Lösch,  H.  (1973):  Das  Handlungsver-
             ständnis  des  Sozialarbeiters  und  seine  institutionelle   4 The main feature of professionality “is the requirement
             Determination. In: Otto, H.-U.; Schneider, S. (ed.): Ge-  to make one’s own picture of the problem situation on the
             sellschaftliche Perspektiven der Sozialarbeit. Vol. 2, Neu-  basis of science and professional ethics and – proceeding
             wied/Berlin, pp. 21-40                            from that – to formulate a self-determined commission
             3 Staub-Bernasconi, S. (2007): Soziale Arbeit als Hand-  which  takes  into  consideration  the  points  of  view  and
             lungswissenschaft.  Syste¬m¬theoretische  Grundlagen   interests of the person affected by the problem as well
             und professionelle Praxis – Ein Lehrbuch. Bern (Haupt),   as those of the (in)direct commission-giver in the social
             pp.198-202                                        care authority.” (Silvia Staub-Ber¬nasconi)
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