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that begins with prayer for protection and as-    preted as breath, wind, or spirit, and are often
             king the Spirit to take control. He then suggests   polysemic. It can also be difficult to distinguish
             guiding  the  client  into  a  relaxed  state  before   linguistically  between  human  and  divine  spi-
             asking them to recall a painful memory using      rits. Jack Levison (2013) argues that since both
             imagery. This is followed by asking the Spirit to   are within us, we do not need to make a distinc-
             minister to the client with minimal prompting     tion;  “Spirit”  speaks  to  “spirit.”  Other  biblical
             from  the  therapist.  He  ends  with  prayer  and   images for the Holy Spirit include fire (Isa 4:4),
             debriefing.  Both  Tan  and  Seamands  caution    water (Isa 32:15; Jn 4:10, Rev 22:1); cloud (Exod
             that inner healing prayer needs to be used with   24:15,  33:9;  Mt  17:5;  Lk  1:35),  and  dove  (Mt
             wisdom and is not a panacea. I agree, and alt-    3:16).  The  term  parakletos  can  be  translated
             hough some anecdotal accounts (e.g., Sandford     advocate,  counselor,  helper,  or  comforter,  but
             & Sandford, 1982) may be helpful, their theolo-   often the Greek term is retained to maximize
             gy is usually weak. We need a healthy balance     meaning (Cole, 2007). A literal translation that
             of  attending  to  experience,  being  open  to  the   is relevant to counseling is “one called alongside
             Spirit, but being grounded in biblical and theo-  to help” (Kittel et al, 1964, 6:442-44).
             logical knowledge.                                There are also many theological images. Medie-
             Those practicing inner healing prayer as well as   val images included the Spirit as a kiss, a wai-
             others emphasize the importance of the imagi-     ter, and a gardener (Dreyer, 2007). Some have
             nation  and  use  of  imagery.  For  example,  Ma-  pointed  out  feminine/maternal  aspects  of  the
             loney and Augsburger (2007) note that imagi-      Holy  Spirit,  such  as  wisdom,  tenderness,  and
             nation allows one to experience transempirical    sharing in suffering (e.g., Johnson 1992; Molt-
             reality. Interestingly, the use of metaphor and   mann, 1992, 1997). Clark Pinnock (1994), who
             imagery is becoming common in secular coun-       emphasizes love, suggests referring to the Spi-
             seling as well (e.g., Hall et al, 2006). This echoes   rit as “she.” Denis Edwards (2004), in his work
             recent theological trends discussed above. And    Breath of Life, describes the Spirit as midwife
             I believe it is one way the Holy Spirit communi-  and companion to the birth of the new. Intere-
             cates. Since the Spirit is indispensable for Chri-  stingly, some Christian counselors use maternal
             stian  counseling,  we  need  further  understan-  and birth imagery (e.g., Clinebell, 1995).
             ding who the Spirit is and how we discern his     There has also been discussion about whether
             work.                                             the Spirit is a person or an impersonal force.
                                                               Although there are some nature images (wind,
             Pneumatology                                      water, fire), most agree that the Holy Spirit is a
             I do not recall a patient ever explicitly asking   person, a member of the Trinity. As paraclete,
             about the theological nature of the Holy Spirit.   the Spirit acts like a person in that he teaches,
             Nevertheless, as Christian therapists, I believe   reminds, guides, speaks, testifies, sends. Indeed,
             it is important that we are adequately informed   the Holy Spirit has multiple roles. He mediates
             in order to practice responsible integration. As   the divine presence, reconciling us to and lea-
             mentioned, the last few decades have witnessed    ding us to union with God, and giving us access
             a renewed interest in study of the Holy Spirit.   to Christ the healer (e.g., John 16-17; Pinnock,
             Most theological work makes reference to the      1994,  Kärkkäinen,  2007).  Indeed,  revealing
             church in discussing applications, but I believe   Christ is a primary purpose. He brings new life
             the Christian counselor’s office can be seen as   and spiritual renewal (e.g. John 3:1-10; Tit 3:5);
             an extension of the church. I focus on aspects    indeed he is the source of “unhindered, inde-
             most relevant to psychotherapy, with a caveat     structible, everlasting life” (Moltmann, 1997, p.
             that the Spirit is always part of the Trinity, the   19). “In the Spirit God himself… surrounds us
             mysterious three-in-one and one-in-three. The-    from every side” (Moltmann, 1992, p. 274). Re-
             re are multiple biblical images for the Holy Spi-  ferencing Ezekiel 36, Welker (1994, p. 167) no-
             rit: life breath or wind (Gen 2:7, 8:1; Isa 27:8;   tes that the heart of flesh that replaces the one
             John  3)  is  most  common.  The  Hebrew  and     of stone represents a “renewal of that which is
             Greek terms, ruach and pneuma, can be inter-      creaturely—a renewal that corresponds to the

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