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abstract  to  fully  describe  the  personal  nature   attend to their own spiritual lives. Coe and Hall
             of the Spirit; it also neglects the biblical images   (2010) suggest we deal with our own issues and
             and metaphors associated with the Spirit.         attend to our spiritual growth. They encourage
             This theological turn is welcome and very appli-  the practice of spiritual disciplines in order to
             cable to psychotherapy. We are mental, emotio-    foster union with God, good character in Christ,
             nal and spiritual beings; our therapies need to   and be more effective bearers of the Spirit (also
             reflect this. Christian counselors are in a perfect   see Tan, 1998). Siang-Yang Tan (1999), in his
             position to appropriate the Holy Spirit into their   encyclopedia article, notes three major roles of
             lives and practices. In this paper, I discuss per-  the Spirit in counseling: power (the therapist is
             spectives on the Spirit in Christian psychology,   gifted and empowered), truth (therapist and cli-
             Christian  theology,  and  Christian  spirituality,   ent are guided in accordance with God’s Word),
             and consider how these can inform each other.     and fruits (in both therapist and client, primari-
                                                               ly love). He suggests specific ways the Spirit can
             Psychology                                        work in counseling: prompting or nudging the
             One of my patients was convinced that it was      counselor in a specific direction, guiding both
             sinful to be angry at her father who had abused   therapist and client through prayer or biblical
             her as a child. My explanations about the diffe-  discussions,  providing  healing,  and  enabling
             rence between sin and anger, about the impor-     discernment  of  evil  spirits.  This  concurs with
             tance of honesty, did not alter her beliefs. When   my experience (discussed further below).
             I asked her to pray for understanding, she heard   Some scholars have considered the role of the
             the Lord telling her that He loved her no matter   Holy Spirit in a deeper, more nuanced manner.
             what her feelings were, and she felt warmed by    Shults and Sandage (2006) refer to the unitive
             his presence. This illumination paved the way     and  transformational  logic  of  the  Spirit.  Un-
             for necessary emotional expression and grief.     derstanding the human spirit is shaped by an
             Many Christian psychologists have commented       understanding of the divine Spirit. Indeed, the
             on the role of the Holy Spirit in counseling. Jay   latter is the origin, condition and goal of hu-
             Adams (1973) notes that there are always three    man  knowing.  There  is  a  mutual  shaping  of
             people  present  in  a  counseling  session:  coun-  pneumatology and spirituality, and the human
             selor, client, and Holy Spirit. Most have focused   spirit can be transformed in relation to the re-
             on the Spirit’s role with respect to the therapist.   demptive presence of the Holy Spirit. Also with
             David  Seamands  (1988,  p.  131)  describes  the   a focus on transformation, but in regard to how
             therapist as a “temporary assistant to the Holy   pneumatology can shape psychology itself, Coe
             Spirit…the Great Counselor,” and Virginia Ho-     and Hall (2010) suggest that if psychotherapy is
             leman (2012) suggests that the Spirit superin-    grounded in the reality of the indwelling Holy
             tends the work of the Christian counselor. So-    Spirit,  we  can  discover  truth  about  humans.
             metime a distinction is made between implicit     These views provide a helpful perspective and
             and  explicit  integration  between  Christianity   context for Christian counseling.
             and Psychology (e.g., Tan, 1996). The latter, ob-  Inner healing is a very practical counseling ap-
             viously applicable  only  to  those  who  consent,   proach and is especially explicit regarding the
             openly  uses  prayer  and/or  discusses  scripture   Holy Spirit. David Seamands (1988, p. 24) de-
             and religious/spiritual issues. I believe implicit   scribes healing of memories as “a form of Chri-
             integration occurs with every Christian thera-    stian counseling and prayer which focuses the
             pist, since the Spirit is already present with us   healing power of the Spirit on certain types of
             (e.g.,  Clinebell,  1995;  Maloney  &  Augsburger,   emotional/spiritual  problems.”  Leanne  Payne
             2007). Indeed, as Lydia Kim van Daalen (2012)     (1989/1995)  encourages  seeking  the  truth  of
             wisely points out, the Holy Spirit’s work is also   the Spirit, “practicing the presence” (following
             evident in non-Christian psychotherapies, and     Brother Lawrence’s classic teaching) within, wi-
             it is impossible to avoid spiritual issues in the-  thout and all around. She notes the importance
             rapy.                                             of symbolic language and the “true imaginati-
             Many authors point out that therapists need to    on.”  Tan  (2003)  describes  a  seven  step  model

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